April 14th, 1912, 11:40 p.m. The Titanic, a state-of-the-art cruise liner, collided with an iceberg, creating one of history’s most memorable events. After that, the rest is history. Surprisingly, the berg scratched the hull below the waterline on the starboard, or right, side. In fact, about 90% of an iceberg is below the waterline on average. It’s difficult to identify what’s hidden underwater just by looking at the area you can see. There’s a lot more to this storey than meets the eye.
So, how does all of this historical rambling relate to us?
CBD, along with THC, is one of the most abundant cannabinoids found in cannabis sativa plants, as detailed in earlier blog postings. CBD and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are only the tip of the iceberg when it comes to cannabis (the iceberg being the hemp plant). These are the most common cannabinoids, hence they’re also the most studied.
However, beneath the surface of the water, there is a whole universe of cannabinoids and naturally occurring chemical chemicals that science has yet to discover. In fact, the hemp plant (a member of the cannabis sativa family) has over 480 distinct chemicals, with over 140 of them classified as cannabinoids.
Taking a Deeper Look Underneath the Surface
Let’s take a deep breath and dive beneath the surface of the water to investigate what additional key cannabinoids exist in the hemp plant besides CBD and THC.
Let’s begin at the very beginning. When a hemp seed is planted, it contains just trace amounts of THC (if any at all). As a result, hemp seeds and hemp seed oil are widely available in stores. When the seed sprouts, however, magic begins to happen, and cannabigerol (CBG) is produced. It’s the mother or father of all cannabinoids, in a sense.
Let’s talk about CBG, as well as a few other intriguing cannabinoids that have the potential to change people’s lives.
Cannabigerol is a cannabinoid found in cannabis (CBG)
As previously stated, CBG serves as the parent molecule from which all other cannabinoids are produced. The majority of CBG is transformed into other cannabinoids throughout plant growth, leaving only about 1% of CBG in mature plants.
CBG, like CBD, but unlike THC, does not produce a “high” effect. You know how 50 is the new 40 and orange is the new black? CBG has been dubbed the “new CBD” by some. In fact, a lot of study is being done on CBG’s potential benefits. However, because CBG is in such short supply, its price reflects this.
As a comparison, a kilo of gold costs roughly $55K, while a kilo of CBG can cost as much as $50K. Isn’t it a little shabby?
Even the US government is interested in this cannabis. The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) stated in 2018 that 9 studies on cannabinoids and pain have been funded.
CBG interacts with the two principal chemical receptors in the endocannabinoid system (ECS), CB1 and CB2, in the same way as other cannabinoids do. CB1 receptors are mostly found in the brain and neurological system, whereas CB2 receptors are found in the immune system.
The ECS is in charge of pain, hunger, hormones, inflammation, and blood pressure regulation, among other things.
Cannabichromene is a kind of cannabichromene that is (CBC)
CBC, like CBG and CBD, may have similar effects but is scarce in the hemp plant, making it highly expensive to produce and use.
You will not get high on CBC because it is non-intoxicating. While CBC does not bind well to the CB1 receptor in the ECS, it has been discovered to bind to other receptors in the body, which has piqued researchers’ curiosity. They believe that CBC has immense promise, but that further research is needed before any judgments can be drawn.
CBC, like other cannabinoids, appears to have a synergistic impact with other cannabinoids, resulting in the entourage effect.
Cannabinol is a kind of cannabis (CBN)
CBN is a bit of an anomaly. CBN is an exception to the rule that most cannabinoids are generated actively from CBG throughout the hemp plant’s maturation process.
CBN is produced when THC is oxidised and is typically present in older cannabis (exposed to oxygen over time).
To put it another way, CBN was once THC.
Because CBN is produced when THC ages, it is common
ly found in high concentrations in older cannabis.
CBN binds to both CB1 and CB2 receptors, similar to CBD and THC, but has a stronger binding with the CB2 receptor. CBN also works as an agonist for the TRPV2 re
ceptor, a naturally occurring protein that controls a number of biological systems in the human body.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a cannabicyclol (CBL)
CBL is one of the least researched cannabinoids, with minimal research on its possible advantages. CBL has only been found as a component of the cannabis plant and its biosynthesis by scientists, who have yet to investigate how it affects humans. CBL isn’t thought to have psychedelic properties, and it’s unclear whether it binds to ECS receptors.
CBL was detected in an ancient cannabis sam
ple unearthed in a Chinese tomb and dated to around 2700 BCE. CBN and CBL were the two most abundant cannabinoids in this sample, respectively. THC was undetectable, while CBD levels were substantially lower (although the presence of CBN and other metabolites indicate it was once high in THC).
Cannabinoids and Their World
These are only a few of the several cannabinoids found in hemp plants. Cannabinodiol (CBDL), cannabielsoin (CBE), and cannabitriol are some of the others (CBT). While further research is needed to establish the potential advantages of these cannabinoids to the human body, the fact that there are still so many more to discover is fascinating.